In the shenandoah valley, autumn rain falls on our cabin. Sitting inside, I got a great view of all the different oak leaves falling. I shot this leaf with my telephoto lens. No tree represents Virginia better than the white oak.
We’ve been eyeing a dying chestnut oak tree on the side of our house for some time now. The size of it’s base is formidable and stands as a reminder of its once splendor. Over the years, the base of the tree had been hollowing out and it was time to bring it down, especially as the rains and winds approach. The kids watched in awe, as the tree surgeons dismantled this once magnificent tree. They asked me several questions: how old was it? why did it die? how long will it take for a new tree to grow here?
So, to help answer their questions, we decided to raise some oak trees from the beginning. This was the perfect time of year for it – the time when the soft thuds of acorns hitting the ground could be heard echoing between the trees. The kids gathered acorns of 3 varieties, white oak, chestnut oak and red oak. After conducting a float test to see which ones were viable, they twisted off the caps and planted them in jars with soil. It could take anywhere from 4-6 weeks for the acorns to germinate, depending on the species. Somer species of oak will not germinate unless exposed to cooler temperatures such as the red oak acorn. We will keep these in the refrigerator to simulate the ideal physiologic environment.
In the mean time, we got to work trying out a cross cut saw. I recently purchased a Lynx 4′ cross cut saw for simple tasks around the property that would not require a chain saw. Safer and also a whole lot of fun. We cut a cross sectional cookie slab, and the kids got to work counting the rings…..104 in total! This tree had been around for more than a century. We applied a generous coating of pentacryl (a wood stabilizer to it) and will let it dry for another season.
So while we wait for the acorns to germinate, the kids have learned a lot about oak trees, and their livespans and how like all things can be susceptible to disease. An adult tree could provide enough oxygen for 2 adult lifetimes. With the felling of this tree, we hope to raise several more in its place. Time will tell! Stay safe and healthy out there everyone.
With the final weeks of summer upon us, I’m glad to say that we’ve finally broken ground on canoe rebuilding. I’ve been delving into the depths of wood canvas canoe construction books, YouTube videos, discussions forums and phone calls, to figure out the next steps. Of course, we spent a lot of times outdoors as well. It’s been a pretty mild summer in Virginia thank goodness.
We spent a good amount of time, first doing some careful demolition. Removing one piece at a time to get to the guts of the canoe. The outwales were rotted for the most part, these came off pretty easily. What was left of the stem bands and the keel were removed next. I was just amazed that overall, the wood seemed to hold up well, despite being stored in the Virginia elements uncovered for several years.
The keel proved to be rather tricky to remove because the heads of the screws were corroded. Once upon a time, they were flat heads. Using a utility knife to carefully score out the old slot and then a few gentle raps on the head with a hammer loosened it enough to get purchases with a screw driver. Another approach would have been to use a Dremel tool to basically create a new slot in the screw head.
After numerous trips to lumberyards, Facebook marketplace searches, I made the decision to purchase my lumber already milled from a canoe builder. When it comes to Old Town Wood Canvas canoes, why not go straight to the source. Island Falls Canoe in Atkinson, Maine is run by legendary canoe builder Jerry Stelmok. He wrote the book: The Wood and Canvas Canoe: A Complete Guide to its History, Construction, Restoration and Maintenance (1987). I had a few pleasant discussions with him on the phone and after a few weeks, our supplies arrived! It was like Christmas, boxes of white cedar planking, ribs, new thwarts, tacks, bolts, canvas and much more. We also had to acquire some new tools as well as a clinching iron, purchased from Northwood Canoe Co.
One of the issues I ran into, that I haven’t really come across in any of the discussion forums or videos, is the fact that probably 80% of the canoe plank tacks were so severely corroded that they were literally falling off the canoe. When the canoe was first constructed, eastern white cedar was used to plank the canoe. These are thin 5/32″ thick boards that were steamed and tacked onto the ribs to create the shape of the hull. After 90 years, most of these were literally popping right off! As a result, the planking unstable. To preserve the shape of the hull, I started removing these corroded tacks and placed a few tacks to stabilize the hull, until they can be addressed properly. I did NOT fully clinch these tacks.
Clinching basically means that these specialty tacks (designed with a taper) are hammered into the plank and into the rib. A large piece of iron (the clinching iron) is held against the rib on the other end where the tack would exit. As the tack is exiting the rib, the tack hits the clinching iron and it curls upon itself back into the rib. The problem with working with nearly 100 year old white cedar, is the risk of splitting the planking. So to prevent this, I wetted the planks with water and then steamed it using a fabric steamer. Some people use irons. This softens the wood, making it less brittle, and less prone to splitting. The thwarts and seats were relatively easy to take out, once again, corrosion left very little to work with for the nut sand bolts. I ended up cutting several of the bolts to get the seats out.
My son got to work cutting out the old cane, and we stripped the old finish and got to sanding. The seats seemed to still be in decent shape and we worked on bringing them back to their old glamor. We were actually working on the seats while we waited for the lumber to arrive from Maine.
Once the hull was decently stabilized, we were now looking at taking out the stern, stem of the canoe . This is especially difficult to do, because the canoe was essentially built around the stem. This area of the canoe is especially prone to rot. In many scenarios, only one section of the stem would need to be replaced (perhaps 1/3 or 1/4 of the stem). There are different ways to scarf the new stem into the old, however, gauging from the amount of rot, I knew I needed a whole new stem. This is the part I’m working on currently.
It is becoming more apparent to me that there is no cookie cutter way to restore/rebuild a wood canvas canoe. I found this interesting posted on the “Wooden Canoe Heritage Association” YouTube channel. It details the restoration of an “Old Town Ruston” wood canvas canoe. Through watching these videos, I gather different types and tricks to help with my restoration.
The weather has been getting milder and we spent many grand days outdoors. My daughter was able to go on her first canoe trip and I do believe she is hooked. She is asking for her own paddle like her brother’s. We will probably have to carve one of those as well one day. Alas, fall is approaching and we are ready for more! Stay safe and healthy everyone!
I never would have suspected that the bottom of our dogwood tree would the site of a turtle nest. It is actually a high traffic area for the kids so I’m not sure when a female would have found the time to dig a nest and lay her eggs. Nevertheless, life somehow found a way.
My son was the first to notice a small hatching, crawl out of the soft dirt. Behind it, the earth seemed to start to crack and cave, as others behind it began to stir. There were remnants of leathery egg shells and tracks out of the hole. I was amazed at how mobile these little guys were right out of the gate. My suspicion is that they are Eastern Box Turtles however I will need to investigate closer. The kids got a huge kick out of it, and they were mostly amazed that the eggs were here the whole time. The nest must have been deep enough for the soil to blunt the impact, because this was a heavily trodded area. It was an inspiring thing to see.
As a father of 3 little children, I find that I appreciate the Virginia state parks more and more each year. Before kids, I loved trekking, camping and canoeing in wilderness areas, far from civilization. Although this can still certainly be done with kids, mine are still a little too young. For now, they are absolutely loving the state parks and all of their amenities, such as pools, bathrooms and showers. The trails are always well kept and the parking lots allow for easy transport of the munchkins.
We’ve had a few chilly mornings lately, signifying the near arrival of autumn and the school year. I wanted to get outside with them before they started school. The weather forecast was set for a high of 87F and sunny, it was our chance to explore Bear Creek Lake State Park in Cumberland, Virginia. The drive was easy, less than 1 hour from Richmond and the empty lake on a Wednesday was perfect.
The park is a modest 329 acres, but the beach lake access and boat ramp with playgrounds was perfect. As true Canucks, these guys overheat easily, so we were stoked about the ample shade provided by the towering oaks and tulip poplars. The beach area was well kept with canoes, kayaks and paddle boats for rent. The spent their day swimming and playing in the sand. These little guys played their hearts out as the final days of summer approach. School is around the corner!
8/6/2022 – It’s been 6 years since I’ve stepped foot in St. Mary’s Wilderness, located in the vast and spectacular George Washington National Forest. I’ve hiked and camped here before in the Spring and Fall however I’ve never hiked through in the heart of summer – for good reason. The trail on this hike is generally poorly maintained because it is a designated wilderness area. Pink ribbons tied to branches outline the trail and most easily visible during spring and winter when the trees are bare. I wanted to take my son and my brother to this area to beat the summer heat and swim in the cold spring waters and to get to the St. Mary’s waterfall – where there are deep pools and cliff jumping.
We arrived on Saturday morning at approximately 10:00am. The parking lot was full but we had no trouble finding parking on the side of the roads. The directions to the trail are very straight forward and the road is well maintained. The summer heat brought numerous visitors, all with towels and bathing suits ready to dip in the ice cold spring waters. The lush green vegetation blanketed everything including parts of the trail.
I realized early into the hike that we were not going to make it to the waterfall. There was heavy rain the days prior and everything was wet and it took plenty of time to navigate with my son. So we decided to just take it slow and enjoy the hike. He’s currently into mushroom identification, and he spent a good amount of time combing the forest floor. The butterflies were also in full force, so he marveled at the sight of dozens of them near the stream. He made hiking sticks with his trusty laplander folding saw. I let him pick one of the deeper pools to swim in as promised before the trip. He was thrilled at the idea of swimming in ice cold spring water.
After a much needed swim and some lunch. We slowly made our way back to the car. As we left, my son reassured me that we were coming back to get to the falls next time. He had an awesome time in St. Mary’s Wilderness.
The city of Petersburg is a short 40 minute drive away from the capital of Virginia, Richmond. These two cities played pivotal roles in the American Civil War. It was here, where the final days of the civil war were fought. The “Siege of Petersburg” was a series of battles fought from June 9, 1864 to March 25, 1865 that led to the end of the civil war.
“Nine and a half months, 70,000 casualties, the suffering of civilians, thousands of U. S. Colored Troops fighting for the freedom of their race, and the decline of Gen. Robert E. Lee’s Army of No. Virginia all describe the Siege of Petersburg. It was here Gen. Ulysses S. Grant cut off all of Petersburg’s supply lines ensuring the fall of Richmond on April 3, 1865. Six days later, Lee surrendered.” – National Park Service
I wanted to take the kids out for some epic learning and exploration. We have never actually spent any time in Petersburg, but the park was certainly impressive. There was loads to see and we explored just a small fraction.
After almost 2 years of growing, my son and I were excited to harvest our first bag of Chesapeake Bay (Eastern/Virginian) oysters. It has been several months since our last check on the float, we found the whole thing was actually submerged due to the weight of the now much heftier oysters. This was really not an issue, as the oysters were protected in a cage. When we initially placed these guys in their cage, they were called “spat” not much larger than big sunflower seeds. After 2 years of filtering the brackish waters of the bay, several of these guys were actually larger than 4 inches! This was our first growth cycle, and it has certainly been an interesting and fun experience.
While we sat around the grill preparing a feast, we reflected on what we have learned:
Raising oysters is very easy. If you have a sturdy oyster float, and access to the water, you can raise oysters. They really don’t require much. They simply need to be upsized into bigger bags and cages and they grow. This is usually done every several months. If you also want to keep them separated and growing beautifully, shake and jostle them around in the bags so that they don’t grow to one another. This will also cut down on barnacle growth. Hosing them down every once in a while, will also keep algae off and keep them in better shape for harvesting and bringing to the table.
The spat is not expensive: $35 can buy you a bag of 1000 oyster spat.
1 oyster can filter 50 gallons of water in one day. This is why they are essential animals in the battle of cleaning up the Chesapeake Bay.
The “R” rule doesn’t necessarily pertain to these types of oysters (triploid, sterile) . Seafood enthusiasts have always followed the “R” rule when it came to eating wild caught (diploid) oysters: “Eat wild caught oysters only during the months with the letter “R” in it.” There are two reasons for this rule.
Food safety: eating raw shellfish, always carries the risk of food borne illness from bacteria such as vibriosis (caused by the bacteria vibrio vulnificus). The risk of contracting this illness is higher during the summer months when the water is warmer. The reality is that this illness can be contracted from eating raw shellfish during ANY time of the year. It is more prevalent during the warmer weather however due to more favorable conditions for the bacteria to proliferate. Properly cooking your oysters can virtually eliminate the risk of catching this infection. The CDC estimates that approximately 80,000 people get vibrio infections each year and 100 people die from it each year in the United States. I always eat my oysters cooked.
Taste: Wild oysters are diploid organisms, meaning they carry a set of chromosomes from each parent. Farm raised oysters for the most part have been selected and altered to be triploid, meaning they actually carry an extra set of chromosomes. These oysters are sterile and do not reproduce. During the warm summer months is when wild oysters are active in the reproduction cycle. During this time, the oysters under go physiologic changes which alters their taste. They are more watery, bitter and just not tasty. Many of the restaurants that serve oysters year round, serve farm raised, triploid oysters. Triploid oysters grow faster because they do not go through the reproductive cycle. All o their energy is put towards getting larger. They grow to bigger sizes and they maintain their taste throughout the year.
Oysters are highly nutritious!
Eastern Oyster (Crassostrea virginica) nutrition facts per 3.5 oz serving. (Approx 3 oysters)
Protein: 9 grams.
Carbs: 4 grams.
Fat: 3 grams.
Zinc: 555% of the Daily Value (DV)
Vitamin B12: 538% of the DV.
Copper: 493% of the DV.
Selenium: 56% of the DV.
7. Be safe when shucking oysters. Wear proper gloves when handling the cages and the oysters as their shells can be razor sharp.