Old Town (1929, 17′ OTCA) Wood Canvas Canoe Restoration – Part 3 – Assessment

In typical Virginia fashion, we have experienced all 4 seasons in the past few days. There were days when I was out in a t-shirt, and then shoveled some snow the next day. Nevertheless, the first signs of spring have finally made their appearance. I’ve noticed some cherry blossoms beginning to bud and the occasional days of full sunshine beating on the face is certainly welcoming after another long pandemic winter. The warmer temperatures in the shop, is also helping to motivate me to get some things done.

After building our steam box, we really haven’t had a chance to do much. I have mostly been reading, and researching the art of canoe restoration. It definitely seems like a daunting task however, one that we willingly take on. I honestly believe that it might be easier to build a canoe from scratch, this one looks pretty beat up. Most of the ribs are cracked in more than one place, the gunwales are spent and the stems on both ends have suffered some degree of rot. The decks actually appear to be in decent shape and the seats as well. All of the diamond Old Town Canoe bolts will be changed out for new ones, and probably all of the planking will have to be replaced. I’ve actually really enjoyed reading about boats, and different properties of wood and the structure and framework of canoes. It doesn’t matter how slow you go as long as you don’t stop…

As a non-boat builder, my research pointed to the direction of the Wooden Canoe Heritage Association (WCHA) for further guidance. The WCHA is a nonprofit membership organization dedicated to preserving, studying, building, restoring, and using wooden and bark canoes, and to sharing information about canoeing heritage throughout the world. The discussion forums are particularly helpful, where boat builders can share experiences and troubleshoot through problems. It was here, where I was able to learn more about my canoe. It is certainly interesting to see what many builders are willing to restore. Some boats are more reasonable for the firepit, however, as myself, I find others that are restoring these vessels for the pure joy of it.

When it comes to Old Town Canoes, there is a way to find out more about your particular wood canvas model. There is a 4-6 digit serial number printed on the stem of the canoe, towards the stern and can be read from the starboard side. Often times, the serial numbers are faded and worn so I was fortunate that I was able to still make out mine. Through careful inspection with lighting from all possible angles, I was able to make out….#103607.

It’s there if you can make it out: “Serial number: 103607”. (Not pictured is the “17” that indicates a 17 ft long canoe)

Through the Wooden Canoe Heritage Association discussion forums, I was able to get help from a very kind member who was able to look into the specifications of this particular canoe and gain access to old build records. I find it absolutely amazing that this document still exists! After reading the form, I knew this was definitely her. 17 foot long OTCA model, Grade AA (top), with western cedar planking with gunwales and decks of mahoghany. This particular model also has a keel. The Design Color #10 is one of the paint schemes back then, which was mostly green, it is shown in the drawing below.

Old Town Canoe build record: Dates this canoe back to 1929-30! Special thanks to Benson Gray of The Wooden Canoe Heritage Association.

Western red cedar (thuja plicata) has a variety of uses in construction and carpentry. It has many properties that make it ideal for canoe planking. It is light, intrinsically rot resistant, naturally resistant to bugs, flexible, with a high tensile strength. My next task is to track down straight grain red cedar boards. With the new bandsaw, I hope to resaw these boards to get 5/32″ boards. In terms of the gunwales, I will unlikely be able to find 17′ long mahogany pieces, so I’ll likely have to scarf shorter pieces together. I’ll see what my journey through the mills bring me too. This is where the fun begins….stay safe and be healthy everyone.

This video, although certainly not politically correct, shows some of the steps of building a wood canvas canoe in an Old Town Canoe workshop. Amazingly as old as this video was, the canoe I’m working on was made at least 20 years earlier. The credit of this amazing vessel is to the First Nations People and the Native Americans who perfected it.


Wood Canvas Canoe Restoration – Part 2 – Woodsteam Box

I knew from the beginning that the restoration of this Old Town canoe would require us to practice some wood steam-bending. This is a technique in woodworking where boards are exposed to steam in order to soften the wood fibers, allowing the entire board to be molded into new shapes. Once the boards are cooled, the wood will hold its new shape. This is how certain parts of the canoe were constructed, notably the many ribs which help form the frame of the canoe. Steam-bending wood can be used for several numerous other projects.

It was time for us to build a wooden steam-bending box. With this box, we would be able to steam wood for other projects such as the construction of furniture like rocking chairs, wine racks etc.

I purchased the Rockler steam bending kit, which includes plans as well as hardware for the construction of a steambox and then the actual steam generator and tubing. The construction of the box itself is simple. It doesn’t have to be pretty, only functional. This box will also be subjected to extreme temperatures and humidities so it will take a beating. It can be constructed out of either solid wood or plywood (external). If you decide to use plywood, make sure it is for external grade plywood as regular plywood would simply delaminate once you use the steambox.

My brother recently had to tear down sections of a wall in his house so he had a pile of scrap pine that we used. Nothing better than reusing old wood and giving it new purpose. In the restoration of this canoe, the largest rib that we would have to bend measures at nearly 4.5 feet. So the dimensions of our box was roughly 5′ by 5.5″. In general, for this size of steam generator, Rockler did not recommend creating a box longer than 5ft and with sides no longer than 6 inches. For larger steam boxes, you would might consider having a larger reservoir of water.

The construction of this box is very straightforward. Basically, no wood glue is to be used because of the constant stress of expansion and contraction that the box will be under. Outdoor screws will do the job to hold together your box. Screws will also allow you to take apart the box if you should need to replace any sides. At the end of the box, a brass fitting is installed where the tubing will connect to from the steam generator. The front of the box, is a lid with a latch, sealed with weather stripping. Using a forstner bit, I drilled holes along the box with evenly spaced dowels to serve as a resting rack for the piece of wood to be steamed. The wooden board that you steam should ideally be elevated, so that the steam can circulate around the whole board. Remember, water will accumulate on the bottom of the box so a drainage hole should also be placed. This steam box will leak regardless, so either have a water collection bucket or steam outdoors.

After using some scrap pieces and a pocket hole jig, we attached some feet to the box for some stability. After a quick test on a small piece of pine, she is ready to go! Next step, damage assessment and materials ordering.

Happy New Year Everyone! Be safe and healthy!


Sherando Lake – Lyndhurst, Virginia

  • Elevation: 1820 ft
  • Location: Sherando Lake Recreation Area, 96 Sherando Lake Rd, Lyndhurst, VA 22952
  • Latitude : 37.919724, Longitude : -79.01
  • Date: 10/21/2021

The George Washington and Jefferson National Forests contain almost 2 million acres, with most of these acres in Virginia (1,664,110 acres). The remainder is mostly in West Virginia (123,629 acres) and then Kentucky at 961 acres. It is home to some of the most beautiful mountain lakes in Virginia. Lake Moomaw and Switzer Lake are two of my favorites. I’ve heard much about the popular Sherando Lake, which is probably the most popular of the lakes given it’s ease of accessibility and plethora of facilities and amenities. Many people come here to swim, camp, hike and of course fish the stocked trout.

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During a week long trip out to the Blue Ridge Mountains, we made a day trip to Sherando Lake to check it out. With  2 little ones in tow, we hiked an easy trail around the lake at 1.4 miles with very little elevation gain of about 100 ft. The spring-fed lake is small at 25 acres, but picturesque. The entrance to the lake is magnificent, with small stone bathhouses and small bridges that cross meandering creeks. There is a designated beach area for swimmers which I’m sure is packed during the summer months. The trees were starting to turn in late October and the air was crisp.

If you are thinking about heading to Sherando Lake for a day trip or for a camp out, just do it. You won’t be disappointed. (For the paddlers out there, make sure you bring your own canoe/kayak, there are no rentals on site.)

Directions

Location: Sherando Lake Recreation Area, 96 Sherando Lake Rd, Lyndhurst, VA 22952

From I-64: Take exit 96 just east of Stuarts Draft. Turn south onto State Route (SR) 624 and continue. At Lyndhurst, the road changes to SR 664/ Mount Torrey Rd, but there is no distinct turn. Continue south on SR 664 approximately 8 miles to the entrance to Sherando Lake Recreation Area on the right.

From the previous site on the Thomas Jefferson Loop of the VBWT:

About 1 mile down Sherando Lake Road from SR 664, head right for a small parking and lake access area or left for parking, lake access, restrooms, information, camping, and hiking trails.

From Royal Oaks, travel north on SR 814 for 3.6 miles to SR 664. Continue straight onto and follow for 0.6 miles before turning left onto Sherando Lake Road.

To return to the interstate, return to the Blue Ridge Parkway and follow it south to SR 56. Turn right and follow this to I-81. From here, turn north to begin the Forest Trails Loop or south and start the Rockbridge River and Ridge Loop.

Frazier Discovery Trail – Shenandoah National Park, Virginia

  • Distance: 1.3 mile loop
  • Elevation: 2852 ft
  • Elevation gain: 462ft
  • Rating: Easy (although still some steep segments)

The Frazier Discovery trail is a 1.3 mile circuit hike on Loft Mountain in Shenandoah National Park, notable for several great overlooks. With an elevation gain of 462 ft, it is labeled as one of the easier trails in the park, we found it perfect for our small hikers (4 and 2 years old). Located at milepost 79.5, it is closest to enter from the Southern end of the park at Rockfish Gap (approx 20 miles). There are several overlooks on your way to the trail head, so take your time getting there.

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Make sure you take the time to pull on one of the beautiful overlooks as you make your way to Loft Mountain.
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View from one of the outlooks from Skyline Drive near the Rockfish Gap Entrance to Shenandoah National Park.
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The beginning of the trail. Cross Skyline Drive on foot to begin.
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Trekking poles are helpful but not mandatory. A hiking stick can be just as good.

We parked at the Loft Mountain Wayside Camp store and information center and crossed the road (skyline drive) to begin our hike. Hiking on a Tuesday, we were fortunate enough to have the mountain to ourselves. It appeared that the leaves were changing colors slightly later than normal. I find that peak fall color in the Virginia Blue Ridge Mountain region is last week of October and early November.

The trail is well marked, and frequently traveled. There are plenty of rocks so hiking boots are definitely recommended. Unlike several other trails through Shenandoah National Park, there was no stream or river bed on this hike….But the views were killer. Have fun out there, and be safe.

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Overlook from Frazier Discovery Trail on Loft Mountain
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Don’t forget snacks!

Things to bring:

  • hiking boots (highly recommended)
  • water
  • map
  • compass
  • trekking poles (helpful)
  • dress appropriately
  • snacks
  • camera
  • helpful maps below

Wood Canvas Canoe Restoration – Part 1

It’s hard for me to believe that the last entry regarding canoe restoration was back in June. Our progress has been slow but certainly steady. Amidst the throes of this pandemic, things at my workplace seem to have gotten busier….I’m seeing more patients and doing more surgeries….meanwhile COVID cases in Virginia continue to soar. Wear your masks and get your vaccines people!

I’ve been finding some time every night, to go into the garage with my kids and work on something….anything….if only for 20 minutes at a time. Lately, I’ve been striving for more discipline, the practice of doing a little bit of work, everyday, in several different areas: exercise, work, learning languages, woodworking, music. It really is incredible what can be accomplished with just 30 minutes a day towards a goal.

Step 1: Building canoe cradles

We are grounding most of our work around the guidance of this book: “This Old Canoe” by Mike Elliott. It has proved very helpful so far.

The priority was building a stable platform for working on the canoe. Flimsy and old cedar planks were coming off the side of the boat and it was simply not safe to keep the canoe on saw horses with children about, not to mention the strain it was putting on this old canoe. I’ve been reading the book: “This Old Canoe – by Mike Elliot”, and used the plans inside to build some basic canoe cradles. Basically out of 2x4s and old carpet stored in the attic. The slings on the cradle allow for an equal distribution of forces along the hull. Also, you can rotate the canoe along its long axis so you can work on different angles of the canoe.

Once the cradles were completed, we could breathe easy. The canoe was in a sturdy and safe platform, and most importantly it was out of the elements and I knew that it would not further deteriorate. Psychologically, it was a huge boost, knowing that from this moment on, this thing will only get better.

Step 2: The Workbench

What we needed now, was a work area to launch our operation of repairing this canoe. We needed a workbench.

We decided to take down some old cabinets and free up some space for an 8ft bench. The cabinets found new owners through Facebook marketplace….they weighed a ton.

After looking at several different workbench plans on the internet, I settled on this one:

It was a very simple design and it seemed sturdy enough for our work. After many hot, summer day trips to Home Depot and a lot of sweating while sorting through lumber piles, I acquired all the wood that I needed. The cost of materials was less than $150. My son and daughter had a blast building this thing. My son, particularly enjoyed chiseling the half lap joints for the 2x4s. I didn’t have a table saw, so the cuts were actually just made using a compound miter.

We coated the table with a coat of boiled linseed oil. (Whenever you work with flammable oils like linseed, make sure your rags are disposed of safely. These can spontaneously combust. I generally soak the rags, and then leave them out to dry either in a metal can or on the drive way before disposing of them).

We subsequently had to paint the wall where the cabinets used to be and then replace the wall base vinyl which was easy enough.

Now we’re ready for the next phase……doing a thorough assessment of the extent of canoe repairs and figuring out a way to acquire the materials and tools necessary for the job. We are looking forward to working in a cooler shop now that autumn has arrived. Onward!


***As with all projects please make sure you wear proper eye protection. As an ophthalmologist (physician and surgeon specializing in eyes), I have treated vision threatening eye injuries from accidents in the workshop, construction sites and even in the gardens. In ophthalmology, it does not get more serious than an “open globe injury”. This is a scenario where the eyeball itself has an opening, either from a tear, blunt trauma or a projectile object. In the workshop, some of the worst injuries are from flying species of wood or metal that can penetrate the eye. The surgeries to repair these injuries can take hours and the visual prognosis often very poor. Prevention is key, WEAR safety goggles…PERIOD. ***

This is a photo of me repairing an “open globe injury” in the operating room. The eyeball in this case has been penetrated by a piece of steel. This was a high velocity injury. This occurred when the patient was hammering a metal stake with a sledge hammer. A piece of the stake broke off and went flying into the patient’s eye. The surgery was over 4 hours and the patient never regained meaningful vision. Wear safety glasses people.

Boreal to Barrenlands “Crossing Labrador” – a video series

I came across this great canoe video series, following the journey of four young men, as they make their way across Newfoundland and Labrador. There appear to be 13 episodes in total. I thought I’ve been in some buggy areas before in my life, but it is a fraction of what these guys endured. Amazing journey. Enjoy!

 

“On July 12th, 2019, Noah Booth, Alex Traynor, Dave Greene and Chris Giard will embark on a 35-day canoe expedition where they will paddle, portage and track their canoes 700 kms from the Menihek Hydro Dam to the coastal village of Nain, Labrador’s northernmost permanent settlement. The route is designed to traverse Labrador in its entirety where they will travel through three major ecosystems, and cross two heights of lands.

The key objective of the expedition is to gain a cultural and environmental perspective of one of Canada’s last remaining wilderness frontiers and become the first modern day team to connect Labrador City to Nain in one trip. Throughout, the journey will be captured through film to produce a documentary that will be submitted to film festivals, as well as be promoted through their social media platforms and sponsors. In doing so, they will highlight and pay homage to the historic travellers such as the Naskapi and Montagnais Innu people who have used these lands for generations as ancestral hunting grounds as well as the European explorers such as A.P. Low, William Cabot and most recently Herb Pohl who have mapped these lands through extraordinary exploration.”

Check out their website and blog here