Old Town (1929, 17′ OTCA) Wood Canvas Canoe Restoration – Part 4 – So it begins…

With the final weeks of summer upon us, I’m glad to say that we’ve finally broken ground on canoe rebuilding. I’ve been delving into the depths of wood canvas canoe construction books, YouTube videos, discussions forums and phone calls, to figure out the next steps. Of course, we spent a lot of times outdoors as well. It’s been a pretty mild summer in Virginia thank goodness.

We spent a good amount of time, first doing some careful demolition. Removing one piece at a time to get to the guts of the canoe. The outwales were rotted for the most part, these came off pretty easily. What was left of the stem bands and the keel were removed next. I was just amazed that overall, the wood seemed to hold up well, despite being stored in the Virginia elements uncovered for several years.

We had to cut out some of the old bolts to remove thwarts and seats.

The keel proved to be rather tricky to remove because the heads of the screws were corroded. Once upon a time, they were flat heads. Using a utility knife to carefully score out the old slot and then a few gentle raps on the head with a hammer loosened it enough to get purchases with a screw driver. Another approach would have been to use a Dremel tool to basically create a new slot in the screw head.

After numerous trips to lumberyards, Facebook marketplace searches, I made the decision to purchase my lumber already milled from a canoe builder. When it comes to Old Town Wood Canvas canoes, why not go straight to the source. Island Falls Canoe in Atkinson, Maine is run by legendary canoe builder Jerry Stelmok. He wrote the book: The Wood and Canvas Canoe: A Complete Guide to its History, Construction, Restoration and Maintenance (1987). I had a few pleasant discussions with him on the phone and after a few weeks, our supplies arrived! It was like Christmas, boxes of white cedar planking, ribs, new thwarts, tacks, bolts, canvas and much more. We also had to acquire some new tools as well as a clinching iron, purchased from Northwood Canoe Co.

One of the issues I ran into, that I haven’t really come across in any of the discussion forums or videos, is the fact that probably 80% of the canoe plank tacks were so severely corroded that they were literally falling off the canoe. When the canoe was first constructed, eastern white cedar was used to plank the canoe. These are thin 5/32″ thick boards that were steamed and tacked onto the ribs to create the shape of the hull. After 90 years, most of these were literally popping right off! As a result, the planking unstable. To preserve the shape of the hull, I started removing these corroded tacks and placed a few tacks to stabilize the hull, until they can be addressed properly. I did NOT fully clinch these tacks.

Clinching basically means that these specialty tacks (designed with a taper) are hammered into the plank and into the rib. A large piece of iron (the clinching iron) is held against the rib on the other end where the tack would exit. As the tack is exiting the rib, the tack hits the clinching iron and it curls upon itself back into the rib. The problem with working with nearly 100 year old white cedar, is the risk of splitting the planking. So to prevent this, I wetted the planks with water and then steamed it using a fabric steamer. Some people use irons. This softens the wood, making it less brittle, and less prone to splitting. The thwarts and seats were relatively easy to take out, once again, corrosion left very little to work with for the nut sand bolts. I ended up cutting several of the bolts to get the seats out.

My son got to work cutting out the old cane, and we stripped the old finish and got to sanding. The seats seemed to still be in decent shape and we worked on bringing them back to their old glamor. We were actually working on the seats while we waited for the lumber to arrive from Maine.

After a few trips to the local lumber mills, I decided to purchase my lumber, right from Maine. Island Falls Canoe, in Atkinson.

Once the hull was decently stabilized, we were now looking at taking out the stern, stem of the canoe . This is especially difficult to do, because the canoe was essentially built around the stem. This area of the canoe is especially prone to rot. In many scenarios, only one section of the stem would need to be replaced (perhaps 1/3 or 1/4 of the stem). There are different ways to scarf the new stem into the old, however, gauging from the amount of rot, I knew I needed a whole new stem. This is the part I’m working on currently.

Was it necessary to fill all of the old tack holes in the ribs? Probably not, but it gave the shop mites something fun to do.

It is becoming more apparent to me that there is no cookie cutter way to restore/rebuild a wood canvas canoe. I found this interesting posted on the “Wooden Canoe Heritage Association” YouTube channel. It details the restoration of an “Old Town Ruston” wood canvas canoe. Through watching these videos, I gather different types and tricks to help with my restoration.

Interesting video posted on the WCHA channel about the restoration of an Old Town Rushton.

The weather has been getting milder and we spent many grand days outdoors. My daughter was able to go on her first canoe trip and I do believe she is hooked. She is asking for her own paddle like her brother’s. We will probably have to carve one of those as well one day. Alas, fall is approaching and we are ready for more! Stay safe and healthy everyone!

Taking my daughter out for her first canoe trip this past summer.
Canoeing in Pocahontas State Park, Virginia.
Side projects keep the kids interested. Like this canoe sign made from a CNC machine.
Fall is approaching with cooler temperatures. We are looking forward to spending more time in the shop.

Bear Creek Lake State Park – Cumberland, VA

As a father of 3 little children, I find that I appreciate the Virginia state parks more and more each year. Before kids, I loved trekking, camping and canoeing in wilderness areas, far from civilization. Although this can still certainly be done with kids, mine are still a little too young. For now, they are absolutely loving the state parks and all of their amenities, such as pools, bathrooms and showers. The trails are always well kept and the parking lots allow for easy transport of the munchkins.

We’ve had a few chilly mornings lately, signifying the near arrival of autumn and the school year. I wanted to get outside with them before they started school. The weather forecast was set for a high of 87F and sunny, it was our chance to explore Bear Creek Lake State Park in Cumberland, Virginia. The drive was easy, less than 1 hour from Richmond and the empty lake on a Wednesday was perfect.

The park is a modest 329 acres, but the beach lake access and boat ramp with playgrounds was perfect. As true Canucks, these guys overheat easily, so we were stoked about the ample shade provided by the towering oaks and tulip poplars. The beach area was well kept with canoes, kayaks and paddle boats for rent. The spent their day swimming and playing in the sand. These little guys played their hearts out as the final days of summer approach. School is around the corner!

Stay safe and healthy out there everyone.

Return to St Mary’s Wilderness – Raphine, VA

stmarys
St Mary’s Road is very well maintained, with a parking area before the trail head.

8/6/2022 – It’s been 6 years since I’ve stepped foot in St. Mary’s Wilderness, located in the vast and spectacular George Washington National Forest. I’ve hiked and camped here before in the Spring and Fall however I’ve never hiked through in the heart of summer – for good reason. The trail on this hike is generally poorly maintained because it is a designated wilderness area. Pink ribbons tied to branches outline the trail and most easily visible during spring and winter when the trees are bare. I wanted to take my son and my brother to this area to beat the summer heat and swim in the cold spring waters and to get to the St. Mary’s waterfall – where there are deep pools and cliff jumping. 

St. Marys Wilderness Falls – April 2016
St. Mary’s Wilderness – October 2016

We arrived on Saturday morning at approximately 10:00am. The parking lot was full but we had no trouble finding parking on the side of the roads. The directions to the trail are very straight forward and the road is well maintained. The summer heat brought numerous visitors, all with towels and bathing suits ready to dip in the ice cold spring waters. The lush green vegetation blanketed everything including parts of the trail.

I realized early into the hike that we were not going to make it to the waterfall. There was heavy rain the days prior and everything was wet and it took plenty of time to navigate with my son. So we decided to just take it slow and enjoy the hike. He’s currently into mushroom identification, and he spent a good amount of time combing the forest floor. The butterflies were also in full force, so he marveled at the sight of dozens of them near the stream. He made hiking sticks with his trusty laplander folding saw. I let him pick one of the deeper pools to swim in as promised before the trip. He was thrilled at the idea of swimming in ice cold spring water.

After a much needed swim and some lunch. We slowly made our way back to the car. As we left, my son reassured me that we were coming back to get to the falls next time. He had an awesome time in St. Mary’s Wilderness.

Spring 2022

Some of my favorite shots this Spring season. All shots with the oldie but goodie Sony a6000. Stay safe and healthy everyone.

Yoshino Cherry Blossoms in Midlothian Mines Park
Woolridge Family Cemetery in Midlothian Mines Park
Life finds a way
Growing some phlox
Dogwood
Lovin those buttercups

Chesapeake Bay Oysters – The First Harvest

After almost 2 years of growing, my son and I were excited to harvest our first bag of Chesapeake Bay (Eastern/Virginian) oysters. It has been several months since our last check on the float, we found the whole thing was actually submerged due to the weight of the now much heftier oysters. This was really not an issue, as the oysters were protected in a cage. When we initially placed these guys in their cage, they were called “spat” not much larger than big sunflower seeds. After 2 years of filtering the brackish waters of the bay, several of these guys were actually larger than 4 inches! This was our first growth cycle, and it has certainly been an interesting and fun experience.

April 2022

While we sat around the grill preparing a feast, we reflected on what we have learned:

  1. Raising oysters is very easy. If you have a sturdy oyster float, and access to the water, you can raise oysters. They really don’t require much. They simply need to be upsized into bigger bags and cages and they grow. This is usually done every several months. If you also want to keep them separated and growing beautifully, shake and jostle them around in the bags so that they don’t grow to one another. This will also cut down on barnacle growth. Hosing them down every once in a while, will also keep algae off and keep them in better shape for harvesting and bringing to the table.
  2. The spat is not expensive: $35 can buy you a bag of 1000 oyster spat.
  3. 1 oyster can filter 50 gallons of water in one day. This is why they are essential animals in the battle of cleaning up the Chesapeake Bay.
  4. The “R” rule doesn’t necessarily pertain to these types of oysters (triploid, sterile) . Seafood enthusiasts have always followed the “R” rule when it came to eating wild caught (diploid) oysters: “Eat wild caught oysters only during the months with the letter “R” in it.” There are two reasons for this rule.
    1. Food safety: eating raw shellfish, always carries the risk of food borne illness from bacteria such as vibriosis (caused by the bacteria vibrio vulnificus). The risk of contracting this illness is higher during the summer months when the water is warmer. The reality is that this illness can be contracted from eating raw shellfish during ANY time of the year. It is more prevalent during the warmer weather however due to more favorable conditions for the bacteria to proliferate. Properly cooking your oysters can virtually eliminate the risk of catching this infection. The CDC estimates that approximately 80,000 people get vibrio infections each year and 100 people die from it each year in the United States. I always eat my oysters cooked.
    2. Taste: Wild oysters are diploid organisms, meaning they carry a set of chromosomes from each parent. Farm raised oysters for the most part have been selected and altered to be triploid, meaning they actually carry an extra set of chromosomes. These oysters are sterile and do not reproduce. During the warm summer months is when wild oysters are active in the reproduction cycle. During this time, the oysters under go physiologic changes which alters their taste. They are more watery, bitter and just not tasty. Many of the restaurants that serve oysters year round, serve farm raised, triploid oysters. Triploid oysters grow faster because they do not go through the reproductive cycle. All o their energy is put towards getting larger. They grow to bigger sizes and they maintain their taste throughout the year.
  5. Oysters are highly nutritious!
  6. Eastern Oyster (Crassostrea virginica) nutrition facts per 3.5 oz serving. (Approx 3 oysters)
  • Calories: 79.
  • Protein: 9 grams.
  • Carbs: 4 grams.
  • Fat: 3 grams.
  • Zinc: 555% of the Daily Value (DV)
  • Vitamin B12: 538% of the DV.
  • Copper: 493% of the DV.
  • Selenium: 56% of the DV.

7. Be safe when shucking oysters. Wear proper gloves when handling the cages and the oysters as their shells can be razor sharp.

Be safe and have fun.

Fishing Bay, Chesapeake Bay. Fall 2021

Old Town (1929, 17′ OTCA) Wood Canvas Canoe Restoration – Part 3 – Assessment

In typical Virginia fashion, we have experienced all 4 seasons in the past few days. There were days when I was out in a t-shirt, and then shoveled some snow the next day. Nevertheless, the first signs of spring have finally made their appearance. I’ve noticed some cherry blossoms beginning to bud and the occasional days of full sunshine beating on the face is certainly welcoming after another long pandemic winter. The warmer temperatures in the shop, is also helping to motivate me to get some things done.

After building our steam box, we really haven’t had a chance to do much. I have mostly been reading, and researching the art of canoe restoration. It definitely seems like a daunting task however, one that we willingly take on. I honestly believe that it might be easier to build a canoe from scratch, this one looks pretty beat up. Most of the ribs are cracked in more than one place, the gunwales are spent and the stems on both ends have suffered some degree of rot. The decks actually appear to be in decent shape and the seats as well. All of the diamond Old Town Canoe bolts will be changed out for new ones, and probably all of the planking will have to be replaced. I’ve actually really enjoyed reading about boats, and different properties of wood and the structure and framework of canoes. It doesn’t matter how slow you go as long as you don’t stop…

As a non-boat builder, my research pointed to the direction of the Wooden Canoe Heritage Association (WCHA) for further guidance. The WCHA is a nonprofit membership organization dedicated to preserving, studying, building, restoring, and using wooden and bark canoes, and to sharing information about canoeing heritage throughout the world. The discussion forums are particularly helpful, where boat builders can share experiences and troubleshoot through problems. It was here, where I was able to learn more about my canoe. It is certainly interesting to see what many builders are willing to restore. Some boats are more reasonable for the firepit, however, as myself, I find others that are restoring these vessels for the pure joy of it.

When it comes to Old Town Canoes, there is a way to find out more about your particular wood canvas model. There is a 4-6 digit serial number printed on the stem of the canoe, towards the stern and can be read from the starboard side. Often times, the serial numbers are faded and worn so I was fortunate that I was able to still make out mine. Through careful inspection with lighting from all possible angles, I was able to make out….#103607.

It’s there if you can make it out: “Serial number: 103607”. (Not pictured is the “17” that indicates a 17 ft long canoe)

Through the Wooden Canoe Heritage Association discussion forums, I was able to get help from a very kind member who was able to look into the specifications of this particular canoe and gain access to old build records. I find it absolutely amazing that this document still exists! After reading the form, I knew this was definitely her. 17 foot long OTCA model, Grade AA (top), with western cedar planking with gunwales and decks of mahoghany. This particular model also has a keel. The Design Color #10 is one of the paint schemes back then, which was mostly green, it is shown in the drawing below.

Old Town Canoe build record: Dates this canoe back to 1929-30! Special thanks to Benson Gray of The Wooden Canoe Heritage Association.

Western red cedar (thuja plicata) has a variety of uses in construction and carpentry. It has many properties that make it ideal for canoe planking. It is light, intrinsically rot resistant, naturally resistant to bugs, flexible, with a high tensile strength. My next task is to track down straight grain red cedar boards. With the new bandsaw, I hope to resaw these boards to get 5/32″ boards. In terms of the gunwales, I will unlikely be able to find 17′ long mahogany pieces, so I’ll likely have to scarf shorter pieces together. I’ll see what my journey through the mills bring me too. This is where the fun begins….stay safe and be healthy everyone.

This video, although certainly not politically correct, shows some of the steps of building a wood canvas canoe in an Old Town Canoe workshop. Amazingly as old as this video was, the canoe I’m working on was made at least 20 years earlier. The credit of this amazing vessel is to the First Nations People and the Native Americans who perfected it.


Old Town (1929, 17′ OTCA) Wood Canvas Canoe Restoration – Part 2 – Wood Steam-bending Box

I knew from the beginning that the restoration of this Old Town canoe would require us to practice some wood steam-bending. This is a technique in woodworking where boards are exposed to steam in order to soften the wood fibers, allowing the entire board to be molded into new shapes. Once the boards are cooled, the wood will hold its new shape. This is how certain parts of the canoe were constructed, notably the many ribs which help form the frame of the canoe. Steam-bending wood can be used for several numerous other projects.

It was time for us to build a wooden steam-bending box. With this box, we would be able to steam wood for other projects such as the construction of furniture like rocking chairs, wine racks etc.

I purchased the Rockler steam bending kit, which includes plans as well as hardware for the construction of a steambox and then the actual steam generator and tubing. The construction of the box itself is simple. It doesn’t have to be pretty, only functional. This box will also be subjected to extreme temperatures and humidities so it will take a beating. It can be constructed out of either solid wood or plywood (external). If you decide to use plywood, make sure it is for external grade plywood as regular plywood would simply delaminate once you use the steambox.

My brother recently had to tear down sections of a wall in his house so he had a pile of scrap pine that we used. Nothing better than reusing old wood and giving it new purpose. In the restoration of this canoe, the largest rib that we would have to bend measures at nearly 4.5 feet. So the dimensions of our box was roughly 5′ by 5.5″. In general, for this size of steam generator, Rockler did not recommend creating a box longer than 5ft and with sides no longer than 6 inches. For larger steam boxes, you would might consider having a larger reservoir of water.

The construction of this box is very straightforward. Basically, no wood glue is to be used because of the constant stress of expansion and contraction that the box will be under. Outdoor screws will do the job to hold together your box. Screws will also allow you to take apart the box if you should need to replace any sides. At the end of the box, a brass fitting is installed where the tubing will connect to from the steam generator. The front of the box, is a lid with a latch, sealed with weather stripping. Using a forstner bit, I drilled holes along the box with evenly spaced dowels to serve as a resting rack for the piece of wood to be steamed. The wooden board that you steam should ideally be elevated, so that the steam can circulate around the whole board. Remember, water will accumulate on the bottom of the box so a drainage hole should also be placed. This steam box will leak regardless, so either have a water collection bucket or steam outdoors.

After using some scrap pieces and a pocket hole jig, we attached some feet to the box for some stability. After a quick test on a small piece of pine, she is ready to go! Next step, damage assessment and materials ordering.

Happy New Year Everyone! Be safe and healthy!


Sherando Lake – Lyndhurst, Virginia

  • Elevation: 1820 ft
  • Location: Sherando Lake Recreation Area, 96 Sherando Lake Rd, Lyndhurst, VA 22952
  • Latitude : 37.919724, Longitude : -79.01
  • Date: 10/21/2021

The George Washington and Jefferson National Forests contain almost 2 million acres, with most of these acres in Virginia (1,664,110 acres). The remainder is mostly in West Virginia (123,629 acres) and then Kentucky at 961 acres. It is home to some of the most beautiful mountain lakes in Virginia. Lake Moomaw and Switzer Lake are two of my favorites. I’ve heard much about the popular Sherando Lake, which is probably the most popular of the lakes given it’s ease of accessibility and plethora of facilities and amenities. Many people come here to swim, camp, hike and of course fish the stocked trout.

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During a week long trip out to the Blue Ridge Mountains, we made a day trip to Sherando Lake to check it out. With  2 little ones in tow, we hiked an easy trail around the lake at 1.4 miles with very little elevation gain of about 100 ft. The spring-fed lake is small at 25 acres, but picturesque. The entrance to the lake is magnificent, with small stone bathhouses and small bridges that cross meandering creeks. There is a designated beach area for swimmers which I’m sure is packed during the summer months. The trees were starting to turn in late October and the air was crisp.

If you are thinking about heading to Sherando Lake for a day trip or for a camp out, just do it. You won’t be disappointed. (For the paddlers out there, make sure you bring your own canoe/kayak, there are no rentals on site.)

Directions

Location: Sherando Lake Recreation Area, 96 Sherando Lake Rd, Lyndhurst, VA 22952

From I-64: Take exit 96 just east of Stuarts Draft. Turn south onto State Route (SR) 624 and continue. At Lyndhurst, the road changes to SR 664/ Mount Torrey Rd, but there is no distinct turn. Continue south on SR 664 approximately 8 miles to the entrance to Sherando Lake Recreation Area on the right.

From the previous site on the Thomas Jefferson Loop of the VBWT:

About 1 mile down Sherando Lake Road from SR 664, head right for a small parking and lake access area or left for parking, lake access, restrooms, information, camping, and hiking trails.

From Royal Oaks, travel north on SR 814 for 3.6 miles to SR 664. Continue straight onto and follow for 0.6 miles before turning left onto Sherando Lake Road.

To return to the interstate, return to the Blue Ridge Parkway and follow it south to SR 56. Turn right and follow this to I-81. From here, turn north to begin the Forest Trails Loop or south and start the Rockbridge River and Ridge Loop.